A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is also a physical record (often paper) of such a system. A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.
The World Calendar is a 12-month, perennial calendar with equal quarters.Each quarter begins on a Sunday and ends on a Saturday. The quarters are equal: each has exactly 91 days, 13 weeks, or 3 months. The three months in each quarter have 31, 30, and 30 days respectively. Each quarter begins with the 31-day months of January, April, July, or October.The World Calendar also has the following two additional days to maintain the same new year days as the Gregorian
This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical calendars are often grouped into larger categories by cultural sphere or historical period; thus O'Neil (1976) distinguishes the groupings Egyptian calendars (Ancient Egypt), Babylonian calendars (Ancient Mesopotamia), Indian calendars (Hindu and Buddhist traditions of the Indian subcontinent), Chinese calendars and Mesoamerican calendars. These are not specific calendars but series of historical calendars undergoing reforms or regional diversification.In Classical Antiquity, the Hellenic calendars inspired the Roman calendar, including the solar Julian calendar introduced in 45 BC. Many modern calendar proposals, including the Gregorian calendar itself, are in turn modifications of the Julian calendar.
The International Fixed Calendar (also known as the Cotsworth plan, the Cotsworth calendar and the Eastman plan) is a solar calendar proposal for calendar reform designed by Moses B. Cotsworth, who presented it in 1902.It divides the solar year into 13 months of 28 days each. It is therefore a perennial calendar, with every date fixed to the same weekday every year. Though it was never officially adopted in any country, entrepreneur George Eastman adopted it for use in his Eastman Kodak Company, where it was used from 1928 to 1989. It is sometimes also called the 13-month calendar or the equal-month calendar, but there are multiple alternative calendar designs that these descriptive labels apply to as well.
The civil calendar is the calendar, or possibly one of several calendars, used within a country for civil, official, or administrative purposes. The civil calendar is almost always used for general purposes by people and private organizations.The most widespread civil calendar and de facto international standard is the Gregorian calendar. Although that calendar is associated with the Catholic Church and the papacy, it has been adopted, as a matter of convenience, by many secular and non-Christian countries although some countries use other calendars.
2018 is the new year known to most people worldwide. Nevertheless, on other existing calendars, we could be in a different year. Furthermore, other calendars may have different new year dates. One can only wonder how many existing calendars are there and are in use. Most Historians and students doing historical studies would have an idea, but how many people are aware of the fact that there are multiple calendars? Webexhibits states that there are approximately 40 calendars worldwide. All these calendars can be categorised under 3 types namely; Lunisolar, Solar and Lunar calendar. Nonetheless, the most known calendars worldwide are; Gregorian, Islamic and the Chinese calendar.
On the Gregorian calendar, we are in the year 2018. Also, we celebrate the new years on the 1st of January every year. Initially, the year began when the Roman Empire consuls entered administrative office. All this was before the implementation of the Julian calendar. There were three beginning dates these were; 1st of May, 15th of March and 1st of January. The Julian calendar adopted the 1st January as the beginning date of the year. This date has remained in place even with the Gregorian calendar.
Gregorian calendar is the international civil calendar. Several countries have their own calendars but they still use the Gregorian for administrative purposes. The calendar has 12 months in total with 365 days for a common year and 366 days for a leap year. According to the history website, the Julian calendar was introduced before the Gregorian. In 46 B.C. emperor Julius Caesar implemented the Julian calendar. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian calendar, hence, replacing the Julian calendar. However, both these calendars are Roman. Both calendars are also solar calendars because their dates show the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun.
The main reason for introducing the Gregorian calendar was the Easter celebration. The most important day for Christians is the resurrection of Christ and Gregorian is Christian calendar. Easter day is when Christians celebrate Christ’s resurrection. Geonologytime magazine states that the spring equinox date was miscalculated on the Julian. Easter was the first Sunday following Full Moon after Spring equinox. This worried the pope thus, he introduced the Gregorian which was calculated correctly for the Easter day. The other reason was that Julian calendar was miscalculated by 11 minutes. These 11 minutes made the Julian longer than the Gregorian calendar.
The Romans used their gods, emperors and kings as names of the months on the calendar. The months of the Gregorian/Julian calendars are explained as follows;
January was initially named after the Roman god of Gates Janus. He was also the god of beginnings and endings. February was Februus who was the god of purification. March was Mars the famous Roman god of war. April was Aprilis which means to open in Latin. This meant the blossoming of trees and flowers and it was a special month to honour Venus the goddess of love. Aprilis is also derived from the Greek Goddess of love Aphrodite. May was Maia Maiestas the roman goddess of springtime. June was named after the godess and wife of Jupiter, Juno. Juno was the woman protector and mother of Mars.
July is named after Julius Caesar a former Roman emperor. August was Augustus who was the first Roman emperor. The rest of the months got their names from Romulus, the first King and conqueror of Rome. September is Septem the 7th month of Romulus. October is Octo the 8th month of Romulus. November is Novem, the 9th month of Romulus. Finally, December is decom the 10th month of Romulus.