The IN operator is logical operator that is used to check whether a particular value exists within a set of values or not. Its basic syntax can be given with:
The following SQL statement will return only those employees whose dept_id is either 1 or 3.
SELECT * FROM employees WHERE dept_id IN (1, 3);
Sometimes you want to select a row if the value in a column falls within a certain range. This type of condition is common when working with numeric data.
To perform the query based on such condition you can utilize the BETWEEN operator. It is a logical operator that allows you to specify a range to test, as follow:
SELECT column1_name, column2_name, columnN_name FROM table_name WHERE column_name BETWEEN min_value AND max_value;
Let's build and perform the queries based upon range conditions on our employees table.
The following SQL statement will return only those employees from the employees table, whose salary falls within the range of 7000 and 9000.
SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary BETWEEN 7000 AND 9000;
When using the
BETWEEN operator with date or time values, use the
CAST() function to explicitly convert the values to the desired data type for best results. For example, if you use a string such as '2016-12-31' in a comparison to a
DATE, cast the string to a
DATE, as follow:
The following SQL statement selects all the employees who hired between 1st January 2006 (i.e. '2006-01-01') and 31st December 2016 (i.e. '2016-12-31'):
SELECT * FROM employees WHERE hire_date BETWEEN CAST('2006-01-01' AS DATE) AND CAST('2016-12-31' AS DATE);
While ranges of dates and numbers are most common, you can also build conditions that search for ranges of strings. The following SQL statement selects all the employees whose name beginning with any of the letter between 'O' and 'Z':
SELECT * FROM employees WHERE emp_name BETWEEN 'O' AND 'Z';